Crude oil and petroleum fossil fuels are mixtures of hydrocarbons that formed from the remains of animals and plants that lived a long time ago. Over time, the remains of these animals and plants were covered by layers of sand, silt, and rock. Heat and pressure from these layers turned the remains into crude oil or petroleum.
Crude oil is used to make petroleum products which are used to fuel airplanes, cars, and trucks; to heat homes; and to make products such as medicines and plastics. The petrochemical industry uses petroleum as a raw material to make polyurethane, plastics, solvents and other intermediate and end-user goods.
Petroleum products include transportation fuels, fuel oils for heating and electricity generation, asphalt and road oil, and feedstocks for making the chemicals, plastics, and synthetic materials. Petroleum products are primarily made from crude oil but they can also be made from coal, natural gas, and biomass.
After crude oil is removed from the ground, it is sent to a refinery where different parts of the crude oil are separated into useable petroleum products. These petroleum products include gasoline, distillates such as diesel fuel and heating oil, jet fuel, petrochemical feedstocks, waxes, lubricating oils, and asphalt.
Natural gas is a non-renewable hydrocarbon used as a source of energy for heating, cooking, and electricity generation. It is also used as a fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals. It is normally liquefied for easy storage and transportation purposes.
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been cooled to a liquid state (liquefied), at about -126° Celsius, for shipping and storage. The volume of natural gas in its liquid state is about 600 times smaller than its volume in its gaseous state in a natural gas pipeline.
Diesel fuel is refined from crude oil at petroleum refineries. It is the common term for the petroleum distillate fuel oil sold for use in motor vehicles that use the compression ignition engine. It is mostly used in freight and delivery trucks as well as trains, buses, boats, and farm, construction, military vehicles and some small trucks.
Diesel fuel is also used in diesel engine generators to generate electricity. Many industrial facilities, large buildings, institutional facilities, hospitals, and electric utilities have diesel generators for backup and emergency power supply.
Petrol fuel is a clear petroleum-derived flammable liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in most spark-ignited internal combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. Petrol is mostly used in small cars and motor cycles.